**Proportional Rc Circuit Diagram**

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Thus it is possible to design separate peaking characteristics for turnon and turnoff. 2.2.3 Proportional Base Control The collector current changes as the load changes. If the load is reduced, then collector current reduces. Then the base current should also be reduced to avoid excess carries in the base region. Hence proportional base control can be used. Fig. 2.2.4 shows the circuit diagram of proportional base drive. R C o — WW — h _TL Fig. 2.2.4 Proportional base drive control A Analysis The tangent of the phase angle is equal to the ratio of the opposite side divided by the adjacent side, tan q=E E C for the voltage phasor diagram. The arctangent of this ratio yields the value of the phase angle, q: R In the series RC circuit.shown in Figure 7.30, the voltage across the capacitor is 80 volts and the voltage across the resistor is 60 volts. arctan E E C R = q Therefore, arctan 80 60 V V Ê Ë Á ˆ ̄ ̃ = q arctan. 133 53 () = ∞ = q q Completing the calculations the Hence proportional base control can be used. Fig. 1.15.4 shows the circuit diagram of proportional base drive. Fig. 1.15.4 Proportional base drive control A short duration pulse is applied to turnon the transistor. The transistor turnson and collector current starts flowing. The collector current passes through the coil which is magnetically coupled to base coil. Hence collector current induces the current in the base coil also. This current acts as base drive to the BJT. The RC time constant 1.16.4.shows the circuit diagram of proportional base drive. R o — VWV TL Jcc Fig. 1.16.4 Proportional base drive control A short duration pulse is applied to turnon the transistor. The transistor turnson and collector current starts flowing. The collector current passes through the coil which is magnetically coupled to base coil. Hence collector current induces the current in the base coil also. This current acts as base drive to the BJT. The RC time constant determines the duration of the stipulates that the voltage across an inductor is proportional to the time derivative of the current going through it: VL(t)=LdI(t)dt(4.27) where L is the inductance and is measured in Henrys. From these expressions for the voltage drop.across each of the passive elements in a circuit, and using the Kirchoff voltage law, it is then easy to write down the differential equations describing, for example, a series RC or an RLC circuit. RC Circuit: Referring to the RC circuit diagram in Figure 4.4, FIGURE 13.12 The CMOS inverter circuit with PMOS as a pullup transistor and NMOS as a pulldown transistor. IDn(p)=Wn(p)COXμon(p)Ln(p)×(VGTn(p)12VDSn(p))VDSn(p)1+VDSn(p)Vcn(p) (13.23) with COX=EOXtOX,VGtn(p)=VGSn(p)−VTn(p), Vcn =νsatn(p)μon(p)L(p) (13.24) Equation 13.23 is a direct result of the empirical relation with Γ = 1 that is used for ease in calculations as ohmic and saturation values are unaffected by the value of Γ. In the fabrication process, the oxide Figure.B5a shows a block diagram of RC circuit. For Figures B5b and B5c, the circuit is first switched to connect at point A to charge the capacitor, and then is discharged by connecting at point B. Figure B5b shows that the current direction is reversed for discharge compared to its direction in the charging mode. The capacitor voltage is proportional to the charge (Eq. B9) and therefore follows the shape of Figure B5c. RC Circuits in Radiation Detectors One common use of RC At Stabili?e TimeSetting AUJ Supply voltage InpuT Current Filter Rectifier Transformer Setting Time Level Amplifier Trip Relay Storting Relay •J) l Fig. 6.20. Block diagram of inverse overcurrent time relay (ASEA) pickup value the starting relay picks.up. At the same time an RC circuit starts charging up. Charging of a relay with definite time curve is done with a stabilized voltage. For a relay with inverse time curve, charging takes place from a voltage proportional to current. The required The other kind of electrical component with simple state is the inductor; the current through an inductor tends to persist, proportional to the time integral of the voltage across the inductor. The resistor–capacitor or “RC” filter of Figure 6.1 is called firstorder because it has only one state variable: the voltage across the capacitor. In general, the order of a system is the number of state variables needed to specify its instantaneous state. In our RC circuit, the voltage across.the capacitor, call A typical circuit diagram using an npn transistor is given in Figure R.5. rejection band Of a filter, the stop band. rejector circuit A resonant circuit designed to present a high impedance at a particular frequency. reference level. relative permeability See permeability. relative permittivity See permittivity. relaxation oscillator A waveform generator the action of which is governed by one or more RC circuits, an output being delivered when the capacitors are rapidly discharged, the circuit