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Dc Vs Ac Current Injury - Wiring Diagram And Fuses

Dc Vs Ac Current Injury

Posted by Travis L. Barnes in Dc
Dc Vs Ac Current Injury -
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Dc Vs Ac Current Injury

Dc Vs Ac Current Injury,
Dc Vs Ac Current Injury,
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY The exact pathophysiologic mechanisms of electrical and lightning injury are not well understood because of the numerous variables that cannot be measured or controlled when an electrical current passes through tissue. However, the nature and severity of these injuries is thought to depend on the following factors (Kouwenhoven, 1949): □ Direct current (DC) versus alternating current (AC) □ Duration of exposure □ Voltage and amperage □ Body resistance PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF ELECTRICAL INJURY Whether or not death or injury occurs is directly related to the following related factors:12,13 • Type of current (AC vs. DC) • Frequency of current • Voltage • Amperage • Duration of exposure • Exposure pathway

through.the body • Area of contact • Resistance at points of electrical contact and in tissues AC is significantly more dangerous than DC at similar voltages. AC can produce tetanic contractions that freeze the victim to the source of DC current causes less direct tissue damage compared with similarenergy AC current. DC current, as in lightning stroke, can lead to VF or uniform depolarization of the left ventricle, causing asystole. Sometimes cardiac automaticity can be restored spontaneously after asystole. However, concomitant respiratory arrest may continue, and hypoxic cardiac arrest may occur. The path of AC or DC current through the body is also important in determining the severity of injury.

Transthoracic Kouwenhoven's.injury variables Voltage (V) Resistance (R) Amperage (1) Current type (alternating vs. direct) Contact duration Pathway across tissues Kouwenhoven's injury variables are the strongest determinants of the extent of an electrical There are two basic types of current: alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC). DC tends to cause a single muscle contraction, often throwing the victim from the source of current, whereas AC causes repeated muscle contraction.VF most frequently results from lower energy alternating current (AC) exposures, whereas asystole is more common after exposure to larger energy direct current (DC). Lightning, with its * extremely large energy levels, tends to “flash

over'.humans and rarely causes deep softtissue injury. Clinical Manifestations History A complete history should be obtained with as much information as possible about the electrical source (e.g., voltage, amperage, type of current [AC vs. DC], body Contact time The longer the current flows through the body the greater the damage and also the greater the possibility of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and loss of consciousness. Alternating current (AC) is induced by moving a magnet in and out of a conducting coil. This is the basis for almost all domestic and industrial electrical supplies which cause most injury and death. Direct current (DC) is produced by electrochemical sources such as batteries, AC that has been

processed There.is a slower dissipation of heat in deeper tissue around the bone and often then more severe injury [26]. Tissue temperature is of utmost importance and for all practical purposes tissue obeys Joule's Law: Power (JJoule) = I2 (Current) × R (Resistance) Electrical current can flow in one of two types of circuits: direct current (DC) or alternating current (AC). Current type plays a role in tissue injury with alternating current being more hazardous than direct [59]. More than 90% of all In longer applications of current the alterations of bone tissue, is preceded by damage of periosteum. Occasionally, damage to the deeper muscle tissues may be more significant than that of the superficial muscle fibers at the

place.of application. The type of power also determines the nature of the injury. Direct current (DC) is less dangerous than alternating current (AC). DC current causes simple muscle contraction, while AC current with a frequency of 50–60 Hz can cause tetanic Although Lee247 has discussed the importance of internal electric field calculations in describing electroporation damage, this has not been studied for lightning injury, and the time scale is quite different. Characteristics of Lightning Current vs. Industrial Electricity The danger of industrial electrical current versus lightning current is discussed earlier. Industrial current is usually inflicted at low voltage, although voltage is a poor predictor of injuries.82 It is

usually.alternating current (AC).The type of current, AC or DC, also plays a major factor in determining injury severity. AC current is generally more dangerous due to the “lockedon” phenomenon. This results from simultaneous tetanic contractions of both hand flexors and extensors. Since the flexors are stronger, the hand cannot be opened and gets “locked on” the electricity source. This phenomenon is associated with standard 60Hz household current and increases duration of contact. Lightning has an extremely 

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